Zümrüt Moreau gives her Turkish lessons by using principally Mualla Atlamaz’s F.S.I book. She also combines some special worksheets prepared for the same units and other sources. This course has a basic and intermediate level. Each student has different abilities and speed of memorizing. The work must be flexible and suitable to each student’s expectations and level. The units start with a connected dialog between two speakers. These dialogs are examples of Turkish daily conversation. First, the students learn the alphabet and the letters’pronunciation.Then they learn the vowel harmony. We learn plurals, negatives, possessives, case endings (locative, dative, accusative, ablative), possessors (genitives), modified nouns before the verb tenses. Beside the verbs, students will learn all the phrase constructions, idioms, verbal nouns, adverbs and many notions.

Our method is based on the vowel harmony charts. As we explained there are two main charts of vowel harmony. Each chart has a symbol in our method. (“2” or”4”)

Then for each case we give the formula with symbols (2 or 4) to the students to let them understand which vowel harmony is to be used. It’s much to understand with formulas why we use a specific suffix. Even if this method seems complicated at first glance, it is reinforced by repeating many times the sentences…using each time a different word in it. Learning must be with daily basis words and daily use needs. Conversations and reminding the previous lessons are necessary.

The grammar topics and the lessons’ contents.

1) Alphabet, word order, easy sentences

Introduction. Greetings.

2) Survival Vocabulary, numbers, (ordinal and cardinal numbers), Infinitive.

Yes, no, thank you etc…. Titles as Bay, Bayan, Hanım, Bey…

Asking something: I want to…., I want a …….

3) Vowel Harmony, M4 question tag, l2r plural tag

4)This, that, These, those  (bu, şu, o, bunlar, şunlar, onlar as pronouns)

This is a box . What are these? These are……..with a vocabulary.

5) Question Words: What, how,  when, where, who, why, how much? etc…….

6) Vocabulary: places,  here is, where is …..Burası, şurası orası, countries, nationalities, languages.

7) Shopping dialogues,  hard consonants p,ç,t,k,s,ş,f,h

Case endings : General view. Locative: at, in, on…..de, da, te, ta

8)There is there are , (Var- Yok -Var mı? Yok mu?). Some adjectives.

9) To be. Positive, negative, question more adjectives as colours, big small, far, near, pretty, ugly, heavy, light etc… Vocabulary:  Jobs Reading.

10) With –without (l4, s4z,) . The weather (rainy, sunny etc…). Dialogue, To be review.

11) Imperatif. Direct speech.

12) Present Continuous. Easy conversations

13) Case endings: Accusative, dative, ablative cases.

14) Case endings:  Accusative exercices. Case ending dative and ablative exercices with small sentences.

15) General review. Possessives. Vocabulary: The family members

My mother, your aunt etc….with small sentences.

16) Genetive, Modified nouns:  Ali’nin odası, yatak odası. Sentences. Dialogues.

Possesives review.

17) To have (Possessive + var or yok) . Days of the week, months, days,

18) Places: In, on , behind, in front, near etc….What time is it?

19) Past tense, meden madan…, den önce, den sonra

20) Aorist .Present General. Garson bakar mısınız?

Adverbs of time: Next week, last week etc…..Adverbs of frequencies: often, in general, always, never etc….

22) Possessive review. Dialogues. Future tense. Vocabulary: Our body

23) Ability .( I can….)    Ex: Garson bakabilir misiniz?

Vowel Harmony

1) Example of Vowel Harmony I or (4) – {i,ü,ı,u}.

e i
ö ü
a ı
o u
i i
ü ü
ı ı
u u

We will choose a high vowel for our suffix and it will be one of the 4 -(i,ü,ı,u). If the last vowel is “e “ we will choose “ i”, if the last vowel is “ö” we will choose” ü, etc…

I take the pencil: Kalem +? alıyorum.

We remind also that almak (ta take) needs to use an accusative form.

In accusatives forms we give the pattern word+(y)4

-“y” is a buffer if the last word is a vowel.

Which suffix we must add to kalem to make it accusative?

In this case “Kalem + 4 = kalemi” because last syllable contains “e” and “e”harmonizes with “ i”according to the vowel harmony I.

Çanta: the bag ; al: take (imperative).

Çanta→ Çantayı. – Accusative form

Take the bag : Çantayı al.

Çanta+yı al, kalem+i al, defter+i al.


2) Example : Vowel harmony II. e/a or (2) :

e e
ö e
i e
ü e
ı a
u a
a a
o a

If the last vowel of a word is one of these : e, i, ü ,ö then we use: e

If the last vowel of a word is one of these : a, ı, u, o then we use: a

Kalem : The pencil.

To make it plural we put l2r. “ 2” means the substitution of “2” by “e” or a according thepreceding last vowel. Kalem+l2r .In kalem the last vowel is “e”; then we must write kalemler as plural.

At : The horse . To make it plural we use at+l2r: 2 here is substituted as “a”. Then we write “ atlar”.

For most cases we use patterns to understand which suffixe we must use.

Alanguage can be learned by using the audiovisual tools. Altering one word in a sentence and making various examples are necessary to learn a new language. The student must exercise several kinds of drills prepared for each unit. Most drills are substitution drills. Questions are devised with increasing degrees of difficulty.


Example of a substitution drill:

Present continuous tense –Şimdiki zaman

Gitmek : To go – Git: verb root . V.R

Bugün: today; iş: work; İşe : to work; Sinema: movie; Sinemaya : to the movie

ev: house; eve : to home

Note : ev+(y)2 is the formula for the dative. We also give this formula in unit 4.

Bugün işe gidiyorum (Today I’m going to work)

Bugün sinemaya gidiyorum (Today I’m going to the movie)

Bugün eve gidiyorum (Today I’m going home)


Later after having learned the future tense:

The teacher: Yarın sinema…………………(to go /+/I ) (Tomorrow, I will go to the movie.)

The student must be able to say “Yarın sinemaya gideceğim.

The objective of this drill is to apply the agreement of the suffixes of the future tense (new lesson) by using the previous lesson’s vocabularies and grammar.

In our book following each unit we also have some drills and their answers related to the unit The student can test himself by doing these drills as homework.

We also profit from some other precious Turkish books.



The motivation of the student is as important as his perseverance.

Every diligent person can learn this beautiful language in about one year of disciplined study. As your reward , you can communicate, listen to the television, understand people, newspapers, notes, handouts, information and speak to local persons in Turkish.